E Pluribus Unum - Out of Many, One

Agreements on maritime incidents, crisis centres, confidence and security measures in Europe and the recent agreement on the prevention of dangerous military activities have been despised by some experts as arms control junk food. But the classic differences between arms reductions and confidence and security measures have begun to fade. Structural control and operational arms control are part of a broader process of political appeasement among opponents. While the results were modest until the end of the Cold War, they were not unimportant. In a way, the impulse to control the new and terribly destructive force of nuclear weapons preceded the weapons themselves. Long before the Trinity test, some scientists involved in the Manhattan project were angry at their greatest responsibility to humanity. In particular, Niels Bohr pledged to open early talks with the Russians to establish international control of nuclear weapons after the war, an idea that Winston Churchill had quickly put into the game of estimation. The idea of international control resurfaced in what is known as the first Cold War nuclear arms control proposal, the Baruch Plan introduced by the United States in 1946. The Baruch plan would have created a supranational body, the nuclear development agency, with a global monopoly on virtually the entire field of nuclear energy and the right to intrusive inspection. But the Russians were already working their own nuclear weapon and had no interest in abandoning it, so the Baruch plan was in limbo. Among the discouraging cases, it was clear from 2013 that Russia was not addressing U.S.

concerns about Russia`s development and testing of 9M729 ground cruise missiles in order to build confidence in Russia`s intention to abide by the ISF. According to U.S. sources, the 9M729 was tested in a manner that violated the INF treaty, and Russia has now deployed several battalions of 9M729 ground cruise missiles, which Washington and NATO believe have a range beyond the 500-kilometer INF border. Russia`s refusal to recognize the existence of the missile and to later refuse and reject measures not to deploy and even eliminate the insulting system has fuelled fears in both the Obama and Trump administrations that Russia has no desire to preserve the FN treaty.


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